Journal of Olympic History 3/2014
I have never had cause for complaint about a lack of articles in the last three years. On the contrary. Mostly what is offered greatly exceeds the limits, so that our authors have often to take their place in a queue.
That it is not getting any shorter is because young scientists and students have contributed even more material over the last few weeks and months. They had got to know our magazine in a variety of places. Some came across it at the International Olympic Academy, and quite a few have even joined ISOH. This gratifying fact is reflected in the current Journal, and will is set to continue in future editions.
The subject chosen by Ana Adi of Bournemouth Uni versity (UK) is human rights as one of the fundamental principles of the Olympic Movement. John Petrella of Western University in London, Ontario discusses the 1980 Olympic boycott and the difficult situation faced by the Canadian Olympic Association. Alberto AragónPerez, who managed the Samaranch Olympic Studies Center in Barcelona, has portrayed a dazzling personality, the Spanish IOC Member Baron de Güell. Luke Brenneman, Ph.D. student at Arizona State University, writes about the history of the Host City Selection, a process which will hopefully be the subject of even tighter financial limits, providing the reforms led by IOC President Thomas Bach bear fruit as part of the “Olympic Agenda 2020”.
In the last edition, the “inventor” of the Marathon race Michel Bréal figured prominently along with and the cup donated by him for the first winner. This time we learn from an article composed by Stavros Tsonias and Athanasios Anastasiou that the Greek Olympic victor Spyros Louis received not only that prize and the medal, but also numerous further trophies and gifts.
In the centre point of the article by Robert K. Barney stands the Canadian Olympic 200 m champion from London 1908 and the Maple Leaf as the Canadian symbol, new at that time.
My subject this time is the Olympic memorial culture between the two World Wars, and the fact that “Olympic Games” took place in 1944, even if behind barbed wire. These are remembered in an exhibition in Warsaw that is well worth visiting and which is rightly given prominence in this volume.
This issue is rounded off by a report of this year’s ISOH prizegiving, with obituaries and reviews, not forgetting the observations captured for us by Philip Barker at the Olympic Youth Games in Nanjing and at the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow.
Finally another piece of news. Thanks to the efforts of Ove Karlsson we have succeeded in tracking down in Wolf Lyberg’s literary estate a copy of the work compiled by him and Ian Buchanan with the biographies of the IOC Members. As is well known, the original manuscript had disappeared since the death of Karl Lennartz, who had it in his possession. To be sure the version currently to hand still requires an extensive reworking, but we remain confident that the series will soon resume, hopefully in the next edition.
– Volker Kluge, Editor
Journal of Olympic History 2/2014
When we were discussing this edition back in March, Karl Lennartz and I agreed that we would take the ever present idea of “war and peace” as the central theme because this summer is the 100th anniversary of the First World War. Karl, who had been co-editor of this Journal, decided to write an article about the the Games of the VI Olympiad which were to have been celebrated in 1916 in Berlin. These did not take place because of the war. There was no one better qualified, for he had already written a book on the subject in 1978.
Now Karl has left us, and Manfred Lämmer took on the painful task of writing his obituary. Karl was prevented from leaving us his last contribution because his illness was so serious. I have had to step in. I hope have succeeded in doing him justice.
To be sure, any essay on Berlin 1916 cannot be done without mentioning those who perished in the war. More than nine million soldiers lost their lives, among them, at least 155 Olympic participants. Seven of these are remembered by our international team of authors. In addition Christian Wacker took on the task of drawing a link in his article between the Ekecheiria of antiquity and the present day which regrettably continues to be a time of unrest.
That Karl Lennartz will live on in our Journal is certain. That will be ensured by the many literary references to his many articles and books. Besides that he managed to persuade Professor Hans W. Giessen to write a profile of the German-French linguist Michel Bréal, importat to us as the “inventor” of the marathon race. And the article about Robert Dovers’ “Olympick Games”, written by Peter Radford, the 1960 Olympic bronze medallist in the 100 m, is even illustrated with a photo taken by Karl a few years ago on the side.
Some other authors who have contributed to the Olympic kaleidoscope in this issue also deserve a mention: Part of the legacy of the Sydney Games is the Olympic Cauldron. Richard Cashman reports on the subsequent use of this famous symbol. Just before the Youth Games in Nanjing Roland Naul recalls Coubertin’s vision and the present-day tasks of Olympic Education. The New Zealand Olympic rowing champion of 1968, Ross Collinge, presents his researches about an “Olympic Soldier” - his fellow-countryman George Cooke, who rowed in the 1932 Eight and succumbed to his wounds in 1941 on Crete. Philip Barker has brought us his Sochi memories, and Willy Schoevaerts writes about Belgium’s Olympic participation of 1896 in Athentes, restricted to two cycling journalists, but even so in the view of the author, this was the “beginning of a great adventure”.
Among the regular features there is, along with the reviews of recently published books and the obituaries of deceased Olympians, the series of biographies of IOC Members. Unfortunately part XVII cannot appear this time. The manuscript, written by Ian Buchanan and Wolf Lyberg on a typewriter, is in Karl Lennartz’ estate. After the formalities have been completed, we will hopefully be able to soon continue the series.
– Volker Kluge, Editor
Journal of Olympic History 1/2014
The first edition of the Journal in 2014 has taken shape in the wake of the excellently organised Olympic Winter Games in Sochi, even though the wonderful experiences on the Black Sea coast have been clouded by subsequent events in the Ukraine. For that very reason it is worth recalling the opening speech by IOC President Thomas Bach, in which he challenged the politicians to resolve their disputes peacefully, in direct dialogue and not at the expense of sportsmen and sportswomen.
Sport, which brings nations together, is represented by the five Olympic rings, whose centennial we celebrate this year. Karl Lennartz has analysed not only the history and origin of the symbol, but also its transformation into one of the most valuable economic commodities of the Olympic movement.
Three contributions are linked to past Winter Games. Markus Osterwalder discusses the development of the pictograms, to which the Sochi Games contributed a new chapter with a “look” inspired by typical Russian colourful patchwork blankets, I myself have composed two articles about figure skating: one about Russia’s first Olympic champion Nikolai Panin-Kolomenkin, whose bust stood outside the ”Russian House” in the Sochi Olympic Park, the other about the “Kilius/Bäumler case”, which caused a stir fifty years ago at the Innsbruck Games of 1964. As is well known, the German world champion duo lost sensationally on that occasion to the Russians Belousova/Protopopov, and the pair subsequently returned their silver medals voluntarily, after it had become known that they had previously signed a professional contract. At the time this was a serious offence with strict amateur regulations in force at the time. Perhaps this contribution will help to bring a little order to the statistical confusion.
One of the most discussed subjects before Sochi was the Russian “propaganda law”, regarded by many homo- sexuals as discriminatory, even if it had no tangible impact on the Winter Games. Matthew Baniak and Ian Jobling have considered the growing acceptance of homosexual athletes and back this up with statistical material.
Robin Voigt, the granddaughter of the Olympic 5 mile champion from London 1908, has delved for the second time into the family archive and produced another fasci- nating insight in an article well worth reading. It depicts Emil Voigt not only as an outstanding athlete but also as an Australian radio pioneer.
Our General Secretary also proved he had a good nose for a story. He used his trip to Australia to take a closer look at the winner’s prize awarded to the Dutch rowing pair at the 1900 Games in Paris. There can be few people who are aware that a century before, in the same city, sports competitions with the title “Olympiades de la République” took place. With his article, Hugh Farey helps us to fill this lacuna.
Many interesting themes then, so that all that remains for me is to wish you an enjoyable read.
– Volker Kluge, Editor
Two Australian historians were honoured at a ceremony held at the headquarters of the Australian NOC in Sydney in early December. Richard Cashman and Ian Jobling were awarded the Vikelas Plaque by the International Society of Olympic Historians (ISOH), in recognition of their important contribution to Olympic research. David Wallechinsky and Tony Bijerk, ISOH president and secretary-general respectively, attended this event, which was hosted by NOC president and IOC member John Coates. Richard Cashman founded the Centre for Olympic Studies at the University of New South Wales before becoming the founding director of the Australian Centre for Olympic Studies at the University of Technology in Sydney. Meanwhile, Ian Jobling is the director of the Centre for Olympic Studies at the University of Queensland and a founding member and former president of the Australian Society for Sports History (ASSH).
With this last edition of the year the editors of the Journal of Olympic History would like to help readers to get in the mood for the XXII Winter Games. In 2014, everyone will be aware that the Olympic Flame will after a long journey through Russia and even into space, find it’s a final resting place on the shores of the Black Sea for the first time – in the resort of Sochi.
It seemed the ideal time for Myles Garcia to explore what had in fact happened to the cauldrons of earlier Winter Games. Our readers will find the answer in this volume. He plans to look at the fate of summer cauldrons in a future issue.
Larry G. Gerlach devotes himself to another facet of Olympic marketing and promotion: the mascots. As with Myles Garcia he also intends to focus on the artificial figures that since 1972 have been popular symbols of the Olympic Summer Games at a later date.
Who today is aware that a prize for Alpinism was awarded in connection with the first Olympic Winter Games in 1924? There was no beaming victor receiving his prize from the hands of Pierre de Coubertin, but the leader of the British Himalayan Expedition, who had failed to conquer Mount Everest with his team two years before. Thomas Lippert and I are able to reveal. How a pledge to one day to reach the summit of the world’s highest mountain was finally fulfilled ninety years later.
Sochi 2014 may well turn out to be the first great challenge for the ninth IOC President, the 1976 Olympic fencing champion Thomas Bach. The article by Karl Lennartz deals with the IOC Session in Buenos Aires where he was elected. In addition he examines the problems faced by Bach’s predecessors during their terms in office.
Among the greatest tests for the seventh President, Juan Antonio Samaranch was the boycott of the 1984 Los Angeles Games by the Eastern Bloc. Brad J. Congelio, a recipient of the Ian Buchanan Memorial Scholarship in 2013, has researched the role that the Reagan Administration played. His discoveries are extended by ISOH President David Wallechinsky with hitherto unknown details.
Allan Wells, the Olympic champion of 1980 over 100 m, reminded us recently that Scotland has produced some great runners. At Buckingham Palace he accepted the ceremonial baton for the Commonwealth Games which will take place next year in Glasgow. Philip Barker was there to see the relay journey begin.
Less well known is the marathon runner Thomas Jack, on whom great hopes rested at the 1908 London Olympic Games, hopes unfulfilled when he dropped out after leading the race in the early stages. Scotland’s marathon expert Donald Macgregor, himself an Olympian who finished seventh at the 1972 Games in Munich, has followed up Jack’s trail.
Our regular features include Part 15 of the IOC biographies, obituaries of well-known Olympic participants and medallists, as well as reviews of new publications which round off this edition. Hopefully a good mixture for everyone. Enjoy the magazine!
– Volker Kluge, Editor